The case study featured here is a 3 MW doubly fed induction motor (DFIM) drive used for mining applications. The DFIM drive controls were designed, built, and tested by Indrivetec AG, at the request of CSE-Uniserve. Indrivetec AG is a Zurich-based power electronics, drives, and energy storage company and is an early adopter of Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) technology with a research lab primarily based on HIL for control design and testing.
The stator of this motor is connected to the medium voltage grid, and the rotor is connected to a liquid resistor of the system integrator CSE-Uniserve and an Indrivetec Insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) converter. Here, the resistor is used for starting and running at a constant speed, while the converter is used for variable speed operation.
The most accurate 100kHz Dual-active bridge (DAB) model.
JMAG-RT FEM machine model import.
HIL connectivity exploded: USB3.0, Ethernet, GB/s serial link, JTAG, General Purpose IO (GPIO)
While automotive and aerospace industries have already adopted model based HIL testing, power electronics industry is only playing a catch up. The good news is that the 4th generation HIL is delivering the unprecedented model fidelity needed for the most advanced motor drives and automotive power electronics applications.
This is an extension of my previous blog relating a ship's power system to a microgrid - interconnected loads (propulsion, C4ISR, propulsion and auxiliary) and distributed energy resources (power generation, distribution and energy storage) acting as a controllable entity. I will be describing a layman’s perspective on digital engineering as it applies microgrid design, building, commissioning, operation and maintenance or lifecycle of a ship.
Industry 4.0 is dawning, and digitalization, decarbonization, and decentralization (aka D3) are fueling the electric grid (r)evolution. D3, in turn, creates opportunities for immense value creation, but invokes new technologies and design concepts, and change brings risk.
As the industrial revolution 4.0 is dawning on us, the digitalization of the utility grid and more broadly digitalization of our complete energy system is inevitable. While digitalization brings massive opportunities for value creation, it also brings significant challenges.
Considering the cyber-physical nature of the future grid, where massive amounts of sensors, communications, embedded computing, embedded controllers, and cloud software will dominate the operation and performance, industry leaders are embracing new design, test, deployment and life cycle maintenance processes based on model based engineering and more specifically model based testing.
The ship is a microgrid with interconnected loads (propulsion, C4ISR, propulsion and auxiliary) and distributed energy resources (power generation, distribution and energy storage) acting as a controllable entity. This is not a new concept. However, it is one that is taking on far greater significance with the increasing electrification and computerized control of naval and merchant marine ships.
Distribution grids of the future will be much more dynamic than they are today. The key drivers for this are the decentralized generation largely driven by exponential technology adoption of intermittent renewable sources like solar and wind, battery storage, as well as highly dynamic power electronics converters, and smart relays. Additionally, the resilience considerations against cyber-attacks and natural events call for a more decentralized control architecture, i.e. cellular design of the distribution grids-one in which parts of the grid can both operate as independent islands and control their own voltage and frequency, as well as operate as integral part of the large grid.
At the Microgrid & DER Controller Symposium 2017, the brainchild of Erik Limpaecher from the MIT Lincoln Laboratory, the ultra-high fidelity controller Hardware in the Loop (HIL) was in the spotlight, and it was glowing. It won the hearts and minds of all power engineers present.
At the workshop center stage, the real, unadulterated industrial microgrid controllers—from Eaton, GE, SEL, and Schneider—were in action. They were directly interfaced and controlling the Microgrid Controller HIL Testbed running real-time simulation comprising 3 feeders with 24 busses, one diesel generator, one natural gas generator with combined heat an power, battery storage, PV inverter, and numerous loads.